The Axis powers, Germany and Japan, began the war hoping that Blitzkrieg and surprise attacks would allow them to achieve their goals at minimal cost. Neither had made plans or had the resources to support a lengthy war of attrition. Despite the early defeats, the Allies were able to regroup and, by relying especially on the industrial strength of the United States, were able to seize the initiative by the summer of 1943. From that time on the Axis powers were in retreat everywhere.

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