Romanization was essentially an urban and elite phenomenon. Though the acceptance of the Latin language and of Roman urban and political institutions was an individual decision, that decision may well have been motivated by the desire to share in the blessings of the Roman peace, the advantages of a higher standard of living, and by the opportunity to reach the highest offices in the Roman state. Section I documents the progress of the elite in this transformation.

Though the Latin language may have been spoken throughout the western empire, the maps in Sections II and III indicate that the level of Romanization varied from place to place.

Despite the variations, the triumph of Latin throughout the western provinces and the consistent form of urban cultures leads to the conclusion that the provincials did indeed internalize Roman values.

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