Ratification of the Constitution created the United States as a true nation, rather than an uneasy alliance of former colonial entities. By taking over all western lands, the new nation resolved potential conflict over competing claims. By exercising power over interstate commerce, the new nation enabled widespread economic growth. By coordinating foreign policy, the new nation strengthened the long-term position of the thirteen independent colonies in a world of hostile and competing empires. The ratification process was far from unanimous, however, and the new nation would continue to face enduring pockets of opposition to the exercise of central authority.